Subject: Engineering, Physics, Civil engineering, Material engineeringTimeframe: 50 minutesTarget Audience: Children at the age of 8 - 12 yearsObjective: to instruct students on the engineering concepts involved in building bridges, as well as the many types of bridges, their parts, and the forces acting on them.to inspire students to use critical thinking and creative problem-solving skills when creating buildings that can resist various loads and strains.to instruct students about the characteristics of various materials used to build bridges, such as their strength, weight, and resource management.to encourage kids' teamwork and cooperation as they design and construct their bridges together.as they present their concepts and ideas to their classmates, to help kids improve their communication and presenting abilities.To give children a practical, engaging learning experience that piques their interest in engineering, math, and science and inspires them to pursue it.New Keywords: Load, Stress, Durability, Deck, Tension, Compression, ForceBridge types: Arch bridge, beam bridge, suspension bridge, cable-stayed bridge, truss bridge, cantilever bridge, movable bridgeStructural components: Deck, abutment, pier, column, girder, truss, cable, stay, anchor, etc.Materials: Concrete, steel, wood, aluminum, composite materialsDesign considerations: Load capacity, deflection, stability, wind resistance, seismic resistance, durabilityMaterials that we provide: ClayPopsicle sticksBarbeque skewersPlastic straws Rigid foam ToothpicksOther tools and equipment:Glue gunGlue tackRubber bandsSellotapes / Duct tapesWood glue/ Binder gumStrings Scissors Background KnowledgeEducate the kids of the function of a bridge. Students should be aware that bridges are built to carry the weight of people, cars, and other things when they pass over water or other barriers. Tension, compression, weight, stress, and durability are only a few of the crucial structural principles that must be thoroughly understood in order to build a bridge. Several different kinds of bridges can alter these ideas in various ways. Give the pupils an explanation of each of these ideas. Display the special qualities of various popular bridge styles (truss, beam, arch, cantilever). Famous bridges in the world:Golden Gate bridge - USATower Bridge - EnglandNine Arch Bridge - Sri LankaAkashi-Kaikyo Bridge - JapanSydney Harbour Bridge - AustraliaSi-a-se Pol - IranBrooklyn Bridge - USAThe chapel bridge - SwitzerlandHangzhou Bay BridgeForce: A force is a push or a pull that can cause an object to move or change its shape. For instance, you apply force on a toy car when you push it. Moreover, forces have the ability to halt, slow down, or reverse motion. A kind of force that pushes objects downwards towards the ground is called gravity. Gravity drags you back to the ground when you jump. Hence, forces might be strong or weak and act in many directions. They are all around us and provide explanations about how the world functions.Tension: A force that stretches or pulls apart a substance is called tension. In the construction of bridges, tension is crucial since, if not properly taken into consideration, it can lead to a bridge's failure. By utilizing materials that can tolerate stretching, such as steel cables or sturdy ropes, bridges are made to resist tension forces.Compression: The reverse of tension, compression is a force that squeezes or compresses a substance. Compression forces can also result in a bridge buckling or collapsing, thus bridges must be built to resist them as well. For building bridges, materials like concrete, steel, and stone are frequently utilized to withstand compression stresses.Weight: Weight is a key aspect of consideration when planning and constructing bridges since they need to be capable of withstanding both their own weight and the weight of any vehicles, persons, or other items that will be using them for transportation. Structures may collapse if weight is not taken into account.Stress: is the force that causes a material to deform or take on a different shape after being applied. For bridges to be strong and long-lasting, they must be made to withstand stress. Weight, temperature changes, and natural disasters like earthquakes are just a few of the many things that can induce stress.Durability: A material or structure's durability refers to its capacity to tolerate wear, corrosion, or damage over time. In order to last for a long time while still being safe and effective, bridges must be built to be durable. Weather conditions, exposure to water or salt, and ordinary wear and tear are some factors that can affect durability.The Lesson Breakdown Part 1: Basics of Bridge-BuildingIntroduce students to the concept of forces that act on structures, such as weight, tension, and compression. Encourage them to design force diagrams to represent these forces in a logical manner. Apply a basic force diagram to the design of a bridge.Discuss the purpose of a bridge - to provide a safe way for people and vehicles to cross a body of water or other obstacles. Show them examples of different types of bridges, such as suspension, arch, and beam bridges.Part 2: Build your ideal BridgeAllow kids to use the tools and materials given to create their own bridges in small groups. It is advised that children conduct their own study to find which materials from the possibilities offered would be best suited for their bridge design in order to make the bridge-building exercise more interesting and educational. They will be capable of learning about the materials they have access to, their characteristics, and their prospective applications in construction through this procedure.Ask them to think about the various forces that will be exerted on their bridge and how they can design a sturdy and secure construction. Have the children create their bridge with a force diagram demonstrating the forces placed on the bridge once they have a firm grasp of the forces at play.The students should create their Bill of Materials based on the materials provided to them, including the quantities, once their designs are finished.Now that the method has been broken down into step-by-step instructions, the students should plan their building stage.The students should begin construction of the bridge after completing the planning phase by according to their instructions and in accordance with their bill of materials.When finished, instruct the pupils to test the structures' capacity by placing weights on top of them. Ask your children to write down whatever information and observations they have.Discuss the many factors that operated on the students' bridges while having them present their ideas. To determine the strongest and weakest components of their structures, ask the students.Extension: After the bridge has been tested, have a discussion about the design and construction of bridges, emphasizing the significance of safety precautions such load restrictions and routine maintenance. Teach children to consider the causes and effects of a bridge crumbling or collapsing.